The list has served Disney animators since the 1930s and was outlined by Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in the 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Squash and Stretch also applies to more complex subjects, like the anatomy of a character’s face or head. As you can probably guess from the previous GIFs, Disney is pretty darn good at this. Sometimes exaggeration can be taken to an extreme, especially in comedy, but sometimes a more subtle approach is needed. As a result, we as an audience actually believe that they are dancing because we see the impact that gravity has on their bodies. Exaggeration – Exaggeration is all about overstating certain movements in a way that helps evoke a point, yet doesn’t ruin the believability of the scene. Objects in real life need time to accelerate and time to slow down, and that concept is what this principle deals with! When I got to college, I’d been animating, mostly self-taught, since I was a kid. 11. This Mickey GIF does a great job of illustrating this! 7. Share your experiences with the 12 principles of animation in the comments! Hannah's work from her sophomore year shows multiple principles in one video. We can use this same example to explain overlapping action! The number of drawings that a given action takes in the animation translates to the speed of that action when the drawings are played back. Though modern animation has gone mostly away from drawing on paper and painting on cels, 2D animation is still a beloved art. How do they make us believe that the things they’ve rendered are actually alive? (link is external) is a group of key teachings for the professional animator. One way to start getting your characters more “solid” is to do character model sheets before starting your animation (or comic, or illustration project! We caught up with Animation faculty Alex Salsberg to get his take on the Principles and if they play a role in the classes he teaches and his own animation work. for a short video of each principle! Fewer drawings in the middle of the action will increase the look of speed. It is used to convey weight, density, and even the concept of motion blur! Anticipation. For instance, in this scene, Mulan’s head stops first and then her hair. Most 3-D animation today works by using Pose-to-Pose, letting the computer handle the in-betweening. I hope this article helped you understand more about the history of animation and the tricks to making your characters look believable! 4. There are tricks the artist can use to make characters connect with an audience. For video examples of the 12 Principles, take a look at, When applied, it … Follow Through and Overlapping Action – The follow through principle argues that when a character is in action and stops, nothing stops all at once. Pursue lifelong learning through conferences, workshops, and courses. To answer any of these questions, one must first understand the 12 principles of animation. The 12 Principles of Animation. Animations that try to create an exact imitation of real life movements can appear stiff and lifeless. Especially secondary action, timing and exaggeration. For animation that isn’t surreal or comedic, exaggeration can still be employed by just pushing motions and character expressions to an extreme. If a pitcher is about to throw a ball, they bring the ball back first and wind up into the action, like the example of the character getting ready to run below. Arc – The arc principle is that almost all actions in life have a slightly circular motion. Anticipation – Anticipation is used to let the audience know that a major action is about to take place. Notice how Thumper draws back his leg before breaking into a run? The 12 principles can be found at the root of all motion-based media. We can’t wait to see how future Disney animators use and innovate on these principles in their works to come! These are less “principles” and more approaches to the animation process. ), “There’s no school like the old school!” Take a journey through Disney and Disney•Pixar’s wonderful world of animation and see how these classic principles have influenced some of your favorite films today! This principle can be applied to characters moving between poses, or to inanimate objects like a bouncing ball or a box being pushed. Copyright © 2020 Graphixly LLC. Working in the industry now? Anticipation helps to prepare the viewer for what's about to happen. These are all secondary actions that enhance the primary action. As Frank and Ollie say in their cameo at the end of The Incredibles (Yes, that was them! So what are the 12 Principles of Animation? 8. When a character turns their head, their hair will move in the secondary action. In overlapping action, when the long-haired character starts running their hair will “drag” behind them for a moment before it catches up. This is done by expanding and compressing the character’s body. These principles were based on the work of Disney animators from the 1930’s onward, who were on a quest to produce more realistic animations. The 12 basic principles of animation were introduced by Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their 1981 book “The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation”. Squash and Stretch – The squash and stretch principle gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as they move. A combination of these techniques is usually used by hand-drawn animators, depending on the scene and their workflow. How do animators breathe life onto a blank canvas? Appeal can be defined as the charisma of the character. Notice how as the two characters dance around, their shapes compress ever so slightly and then stretch back into shape. 2. 9. (Kind of like a pendulum!) 1. Straight ahead is better for creating fluid, realistic actions while pose to pose is more effective for dramatic or emotional scenes where it’s more about conveying an idea than a sense of realness. Especially squash and stretch, anticipation and follow through and overlapping action. These principles were based on the work of Disney animators from the 1930’s onward, who were on a … Posted on: Sat, Jul 18, 20 - By Contact Graphixly. (For instance, a ball thrown under-hand would travel in a arc upward and then down, but a fastball thrown by a professional baseball player would travel in a straighter line because of its speed.) While technology and industries have evolved with new and different ideas being integrated into animation, the principles can still be seen in movies and web design today.