(2018) The Emerging Role of Bioinformatics in Biotechnology. Bioinformatics plays an important role in comparative genomics by determing the genomic structural and functional relationship between different biological species 27. Bioinformatics is the applications of computer science to store, mange, analyze and process biological data [1], [2]. Preparation of Reports 8. Bioinformatics has been integrated into a number of different disciplines where it assists in better understanding of the data in a shorter time frame 2. Progressions in structural /functional genomics and molecular technologies such as genome sequencing and DNA microarrays generates valuable knowledge which explains nutrition in relation of an individual’s genetics which directly influences its metabolism 73. Bioinformatic tools such as NCI 64, NCIP (part of NCI) 65 and CBIIT 66 have played an important role in genomics, proteomics, imaging, and metabolomics to increase our knowledge of the molecular basis of cancer 67. It allows researchers to collect, store, catalogue and analyse information in unique format that is easily manipulated for future research 5. Studies on Plant Modelling 6. Clinical bioinformatics is an emerging new field of bioinformatics that employs various bioinformatics tool such as computer aided drug designing to design novel drugs, vaccines, DNA drug modelling ,insilico drug testing,etc to produce new and effective drugs in a shorter time frame with lower risks 62, 63. Protein topology prediction is now so much easy thanks to bioinformatics which helps in the prediction of 3D structure of a protein to gain an insight into its function as well 92. Bioinformatics has got so many applications in biotechnology field. Pedigree Analysis 7. Advanced molecular based techniques led to the accumulation of huge proteomic data of protein activity patterns, interactions, profiling, composition, structural information, image analysis, peptide mass fingerprinting, peptide fragmentation fingerprinting etc 54, 55. Some examples of data manipulation include molecular online tools and the bio extract server 6. The main uses of bioinformatics include: 1. Thus bioinformatics holds significant importance in countless disciplines of biotechnology such as comparative genomics, drug designing, proteomics, molecular modelling, microbial genomics etc, Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science. Some applications of bioinformatics in biotechnology is given below: To manage an escalating amount of genomic information, bioinformatic tools are required to maintain and analyze the DNA sequences from different organism 8. Given below is a list of few bioinformatics tools used in comparative genomics Table 2. This enormous data could be managed by using different tools of bioinformatics. The Emerging Role of Bioinformatics in Biotechnology, 1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences,(BUITEMS),Quetta, Pakistan, Bioinformatic tools is widely used to manage the enormous genomic and proteomic data involving DNA/protein sequences management, drug designing, homology modelling, motif/domain prediction ,docking, annotation and dynamic simulation etc. Plant Genetic Resources Data Base 3. Proteomics, comparative genomics, nutrigenomics, microbial genome, biodefense, forensics etc. Predicting Protein Structure and Function, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Transcriptional regulatory networks database, Identification of conserved structural features in TF binding sites, Promoter extraction tool from eukaryotic organisms, Determine clustered repeats in DNA fragment, Tool for predicting motifs cluster in DNA sequences, Finds regulatory regions in DNA fragments, Find overrepresented motifs in DNA sequences, Predicts overrepresented motifs in DNA fragments, Tool to find transcription factors with over‐represented binding sites in the upstream regions of co‐expressed human genes, Oral human microbiome integrated computational system, Homologous protein sequences searching tool, Predicts the physico-chemical properties of proteins, Predicts single point mutation in DNA sequences, Find open reading frame in putative genes, Predicts gene termination sites during transcription, Genomes annotation tool along with the structure and function prediction of biological molecules, Maximum likelihood based phylogenetic analysis tool, Tool for viewing and editing phylogenetic trees, Database contains collection of RNA families, Database provide data on structures of nucleic acids, proteins etc, Database containing the manually annotated protein sequences, Provide information on protein families, its conserved domains and actives sites, Contains data on functional characterization and post-translation modification of proteins and peptides, Database containing annotated genomes of eukaryotes including human, mouse and other vertebrates, Tool for determing peptides binding to major histocompatibility complex, Tool to evaluate docking algorithms performance, Proteomic analysis for analysing 2D-Gel images, Categorizes segmentally altered genes in many complete microbial genomes, Database stores hydroxyl radical cleavage data of DNA sequences, Retrieve conserved gene cluster data from numerous microbial genomes, Store information on tandem repeats in genomic DNA, Tools for visualizing and analysing many biological interactions, Identification of transcription factor binding sites, Detection of transcription factor binding site, Tool for the categorized organization of proteins, For the prediction of sequence-structure correlations in proteins, Predicts secondary structures of proteins. Using numerous bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis of the molecular data can easily be achieved in a short period of time by constructing phylogenetic trees to study its evolutionary relationship based on sequence alignment 68. Bioinformatics provided computational ways for data analysis by employing informatics tools and softwares to determine protein/gene structure or sequence, homology, molecular modeling of biological system, molecular docking etc to analyze and interpret data in insilico 1.Currently bioinformatics have become a principal technology in all life sciences research. Such simulations will make it possible to improve food quality by developing new food additives by comprehending the basis of taste tenacity, antagonism and complementation 90, 91. 2. For those who want to establish a career in Biotechnology must know that there are a wide range of applications of Bioinformatics in this field. Determination of sequence homology, gene finding, coding region identification, structural and functional analyses of genomic sequences etc, all this is possible by the use of different bioinformatics tools and software packages 9. A number of databases consists of DNA profiles of known delinquents 69. Apart from understanding the genes and genomes, the bioinformatics tools and programs are used to compare the gene pair alignment in order to identify the functions of genes and genomes. Bioinformatics Applications in Biotechnology 1. Some applications of bioinformatics in biotechnology is given below: Genomics To manage an escalating amount of genomic information, bioinformatic tools are required to maintain and analyze the DNA sequences from different organism 8 . Bioinformatics has not only become essential for basic genomic and molecular biology research, but is having a major impact on many areas of biotechnology and biomedical sciences. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Advancement in microarray technology, bayesian networks, programming algorithms etc provides an effective method of evidence organization and interpretation 70, 71. In this article an effort is made to provide brief information of applications of bioinformatics in the field of Medicine, Microbial Genome Application … ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the top ten applications of bioinformatics in plant breeding and genetics. Nida Tabassum Khan Received 18 Jun 2018; Regulation of gene expression is the core of functional genomics allowing researchers to apply genomic data to molecular technologies that can quantify the amount of actively transcribing genes in any cell at any time (e.g. Microbes have been studied at very basic level with the help of bioinformatics tools required to analyse their unique set of genes that enables them to survive under unfavourable conditions 101. Given below is a list of few bioinformatics tools used in gene expression study Table 4. This is lab template for the proper accession and usage of online molecular tools like bio extract 7. Why Bioinformatics? It is useful for accessing bimolecular data from many sources for many purposes. Accepted 02 Aug 2018; Thus it offers promising future to accelerate scientific research in biotechnology. Storage and Retrieval of Data 5. Since the sequencing of the first complete microbial genome of Haemophilus influenzae in 1995, hundreds of microbial genomes have been sequenced and archived for public research in GenBank.