The extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in the brain is the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. The chemical mechanism of the binding of these dyes to amyloid is not understood but it is definitely specific, as upon examination of the tissue sections, only the regions containing amyloid are stained2, 3.

FTIR analysis of lyophilized fungal biomass was monitored on a Thermo Scientific IR 200 FT-IR spectrophotometer. Decolorization, biomass production, pH, LiP, and MnP activities were monitored during 6 days (Figure 2).

However, pollution reduces its availability for human use. When the initial dye concentration increased to 1g.L-1, a significant reduction in the decolorization rate was observed (73%), which can be due to the dye toxicity at high concentrations [18].

Inhibition was obtained with untreated CR dye solution. The fungal biomass was determined by measuring the dry weight of the pellets suspensions washed twice with distilled water.

Similarly, although Congo-Red staining is a useful technique for the detection of classical and/or pathological amyloids, its specificity for the cross-β structure is not high (17, 18). Density values of B. cereus and E. coli were 1.34 and 1.68, respectively, on treated CR and 2.019 and 2.37, respectively, on nutrient broth.

Cultures were incubated at 30°C, for 6 days. Decolorization rate was determined according to the following formulation: is the dye absorbance before decolorization and is the dye absorbance after decolorization. The maximum mycelium dry weight obtained was 6.4 g.L−1. The control groups were treated with distilled water. Kelenyi, G (1967) “Thioflavin S fluorescent and Congo red anisotropic stainings in the histologic demonstration of amyloid”, Delacourte, A., Defossez, A., Persuy, P. and Peers, M. C (1987) “Obbservation of morphological relationship between angiopathic blood vessels and degenerative neurites in Alzheimer’s disease”.

Several studies have shown that ligninolytic fungal enzymes are efficient for dye decolorization [20, 21].

The objective of this study was to assess the congo red biodegradation and detoxification by Aspergillus niger . Noninoculated dye solution was designated as negative control. This degradation is due to the combined action of three enzymes LiP, MnP, and probably deaminase. After inoculation, cultures were placed in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 30°C for 10 days. The decolorization analysis of the biodegraded and crude CR solution was performed by the change in the absorption spectrum in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm region using a quartz cuvette with an optical path of 5nn. Cite as.

The enzymes involved in the decolorization process were identified and the effects of various parameters (pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, and shaking speed) on dye decolorization and enzymes production were investigated. The peak at 2937 cm−1 corresponds to asymmetric and symmetric stretching of the C- H bond of -CH2 group. BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY). Copyright © 2018 Nedra Asses et al. In fact, during the manufacturing processes, a large percentage of the synthetic dye does not bind and is lost in wastewaters, which are usually discharged untreated.

It is supplied as powder and is best dissolved in a 10% ammonia solution. Optimal conditions previously set up were used to study the biodegradation and the adsorption ability of A. niger.

However, bioprocessing can be considered as a preferred option to overcome these disadvantages because it is cost saving and environmentally friendly. Congo red was used to detect whether the conformation of BDP was triple helix. The differences between enzymatic activities recorded between 100 and 150 rpm are not significant .

[17] showed that optimum temperature for dye decolorization for most fungi varied between 25 and 35°C.

The influence of pH and temperature on decolorization was studied in presence of 200 mg. L−1 CR under pH values ranging from 3 to 10 and temperature ranging from 15 to 45°C.


The highest MnP and LiP activities were 53.2 ± 1.41 UI.L−1 and 450.13 ± 11 UI.L−1, respectively. The assay mixture contained 0.5 mM MnSO4 and 0.5 mM H2O2 in 50 mM sodium malonate buffer, pH 4.5. The fungal biomass was homogenized, filtered through Whatman filter paper No. The acid azo dyes possess affinity for wool and silk and are applied by essentially the same procedure used for the direct class. the Congo red dye on March 17, 1885, less than a month after the conference ended; this patent application men-tions that Congo red was already ‘‘well known.’’18 It might be imagined that production of Congo red re-quired raw materials from Africa, or that the dyestuff was named in honor of colorful native African textiles. CR biosorption treatment was conducted with dye aqueous solution in 250 mL Erlenmeyer containing 100 mL broth medium and 200 mg. L−1 CR dye inoculated by 2g of autoclaved fresh fungal biomass of A. niger (inactivated biomass).

However, laccase activity was not detected. (v) The peroxidase cleavage produces also low molecular weight of stable degraded products, the sodium naphthalene sulfonate (I) (m/z = 227) and the cycloheptadienylium (J) (m/z=91). In the human body, amyloids have been linked to the development of various diseases. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The Manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was determined using MnSO4 as a substrate [11].

In all cultures, 2g of fungal fresh biomass was used to inoculate 100 mL synthetic nutrient broth. Journal of Immunology.

A total decolorization of Procion Red MX-5B by Aspergillus niger was obtained after 336 h of treatment.

The biomass increased and pH decreased the first six days and then stabilized.