[119] This includes people with limited skin synthesis of vitamin D, who are not often outdoors, are frail, housebound, living in a care home, or usually wearing clothes that cover up most of the skin, or with dark skin, such as having an African, African-Caribbean or south Asian background. The conversion of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 in the skin is about 10 times faster than in an organic solvent. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D 3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol).. Alfred Fabian Hess stated: "Light equals vitamin D."[193] Adolf Windaus, at the University of Göttingen in Germany, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928 for his work on the constitution of sterols and their connection with vitamins. They had to either ingest it or be exposed to sunlight to photosynthesize it in their skin. [137] The vitamin D2 content in mushrooms and Cladina arbuscula, a lichen, increase with exposure to ultraviolet light,[135][138] and is emulated by industrial ultraviolet lamps for fortification. ( sometimes l.c.) [13] Another meta-analysis covering over 350,000 people concluded that vitamin D supplementation in unselected community-dwelling individuals does not reduce skeletal (total fracture) or non-skeletal outcomes (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, stroke, cerebrovascular disease, cancer) by more than 15%, and that further research trials with similar design are unlikely to change these conclusions. [104], Pregnancy -- Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy are associated with gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and small (for gestational age) infants. [98], Low levels of vitamin D are associated with two major forms of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Vitamin D2 is found in fungi and is produced by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol. British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease. The dietary reference intakes for vitamin D are chosen with a margin of safety and 'overshoot' the targeted serum value to ensure the specified levels of intake achieve the desired serum 25(OH)D levels in almost all persons. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. [101] A review article of 2016 reported that while there is increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for diabetes, over-all evidence regarding vitamin D levels and diabetes mellitus is contradictory, requiring further studies. Severe vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets, a softening and weakening of bones, which is a rare disease in the developed world. [57][203], The United States National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements established a Vitamin D Initiative in 2014 to track current research and provide education to consumers. [6][2] Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.[1][7] In the U.S. and other countries, cow's milk and plant-derived milk substitutes are fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. [164][165] The disorder can continue into adulthood. [64] Both an excess and a deficiency in vitamin D appear to cause abnormal functioning and premature aging. "[62]:403 Although ULs are believed to be safe, information on the long-term effects is incomplete and these levels of intake are not recommended for long-term consumption.[62]:403:433. [10][11][201], There is conflicting evidence about the benefits of interventions with vitamin D,[202] one view purporting an intake of 4,000–12,000 IU/day from sun exposure with concomitant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 40 to 80 ng/mL,[203] while another view is that serum concentrations above 50 ng/mL are not plausible. [169][137], Click on icon in lower right corner to open. 4. The FDA advised manufacturers of liquid vitamin D supplements that droppers accompanying these products should be clearly and accurately marked for 400 international units (1 IU is the biological equivalent of 25 ng cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol). [1], Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine, modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system. noun, plural D's or Ds, d's or ds. [65][66][67] The relationship between serum calcifediol level and all-cause mortality is parabolic. The Swedish National Food Agency recommends a daily intake of 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D3 for children and adults up to 75 years, and 20 μg (800 IU) for adults 75 and older. [56] Vitamin D deficiency is common in Hispanic and African-Americans in the United States, with levels dropping significantly in the winter. Manufactured foods fortified with vitamin D include some fruit juices and fruit juice drinks, meal replacement energy bars, soy protein-based beverages, certain cheese and cheese products, flour products, infant formulas, many breakfast cereals, and milk. Other possible agencies with claim guidance: Japan FOSHU[117] and Australia-New Zealand. Circulating calcifediol may then be converted into calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D, in the kidneys. [23] Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. Using $300 of his own money, Steenbock patented his invention. The process is faster in white button mushrooms.[137](fig. [156] The optimal vitamin D levels are still controversial and another review concluded that ranges from 30 to 40 ng/mL (75 to 100 nmol/L) were to be recommended for athletes. [131] The European Menopause and Andropause Society recommends postmenopausal women consume 15 µg (600 IU) until age 70, and 20 µg (800 IU) from age 71. [69] A study found that supplementation with 800 UI or more daily, in those older than 65 years was "somewhat favorable in the prevention of hip fracture and non-vertebral fracture". [38] Having darker skin and reduced exposure to sunshine did not produce rickets unless the diet deviated from a Western omnivore pattern characterized by high intakes of meat, fish, and eggs, and low intakes of high-extraction[definition needed] cereals. [1][2] In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). VDR activation in the intestine, bone, kidney, and parathyroid gland cells leads to the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood (with the assistance of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin) and to the maintenance of bone content. Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D. Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. Fast code, fast. [132], Although vitamin D is present naturally in only a few foods,[1] it is commonly added as a fortification in manufactured foods. [13] Insufficient evidence existed to recommend vitamin D supplements for all people with cancer, although some evidence suggested that low vitamin D may be associated with a worse outcome for some cancers,[79] and that higher 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels at the time of diagnosis were associated with better outcomes.