Socially, even though both civilizations were patriarchal, the Egyptians were less strict than the Mesopotamians towards their female population. [28][29] It is unknown if the transfer of this design was the result of Mesopotamian workmen in Egypt, or if temple designs on imported Mesopotamian seals may have been a sufficient source of inspiration for Egyptian architects. [22][14], In addition, Egyptian objects were created which clearly mimic Mesopotamian forms, although not slavishly. The Greek city-states also constantly fought each to gain power over all of Greece. [35] Also, it is considered unlikely that something as complicated as recessed panel architecture could have worked its way into Egypt by proxy, and at least a small contingent of migrants is often suspected. [47], There is however a lack of direct evidence, and "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". In Mesopotamia, the government was a monarchy, whereas the Egyptian government was a theocracy. Lapis Lazuli probably originated in northern Afghanistan, as no other sources are known, and had to be transported across the Iranian plateau to Mesapotamia, and then Egypt. While both civilizations had one main ruler, Egypt was united under a centralized government and Mesopotamia was divided into city-states with a decentralized government. Most of the citizens were considered free, but with rights of slaves, who had none. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. [60] A shared drift and mixture analysis of the DNA of these ancient Egyptian mummies shows that the connection is strongest with ancient populations from the Levant, the Near East and Anatolia, and to a lesser extent modern populations from the Near East and the Levant. [45] Only very few Egyptian Naqada period object have been found beyond Egypt, and generally in its vicinity, such as a rare Naqada III Egyptian Cosmetic palette in the shape of a fish, of the end of 4th millennium BCE, found in Ashkelon or Gaza. The Lapis lazuli material is thought to have been imported through Mesopotamia from Afghanistan. [34] The site of Buto in particular was suggested, but it has been rejected as a possible candidate. The most popular god, Osiris, was also the law giver as well as the custodian of the world of the dead. Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata It was therefore the setting for the first wheel and the first government as well as other “innumerable firsts.” Egypt as well as Mesopotamia was swift to implement, primary river valley civilizations. [21] The designs are similar to those of Mesopotamia, where they were invented during the early 4th millennium BCE, during the Uruk period, as an evolutionary step from various accounting systems and seals going back as early as the 7th millennium BCE. From circa 1650 BCE, the Hyksos, foreigners of probable Levantine origin, established the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (1650–1550 BCE) based at the city of Avaris in the Nile delta, from where they ruled the northern part of the country. [37][38][39], While there is clear evidence the Naqada II culture borrowed abundantly from Mesopotamia, the most commonly held view today is that the achievements of the First Dynasty were the result of a long period of indigenous cultural and political development. Climate change intervened in this simple form of governance. their societies…, Ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia were two of the world’s earliest city-based civilizations. Women in Mesopotamia were often arranged into marriages, without a say on the subject. Mesopotamia and Egypt had different types of governance. * Compare Political: Civilzations like China also had very powerful rulers like Egypt. [3][4] Influences can be seen in the visual arts of Egypt, in imported products, and also in the possible transfer of writing from Mesopotamia to Egypt[4] and generated "deep-seated" parallels in the early stages of both cultures. The geography of Ancient Egypt and Ancient India is obviously different. [72][73][74], Exchanges would again flourish between the two cultures from the period of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c.1550 BC–c.1069 BC), this time an exchange between two mature and well-established civilizations.[75]. [2], Standard reconstructions of the development of writing generally place the development of the Sumerian proto-cuneiform script before the development of Egyptian hieroglyphs, with the suggestion the former influenced the latter. [22][14], Egyptian necklace and pendant, using lapis lazuri imported from Afghanistan, possibly by Mesopotamian traders, Naqada II circa 3500 BCE, British Museum EA57765 EA57586. The women of ancient Egypt enjoyed more status, respect and opportunity than those of Mesopotamia did. Peasants were among the free but could only rent land that belonged to the king or the temple, who required them to relinquish part of their harvests in order to use the property. On the other hand, Egypt was ruled by pharaoh who was the only powerful king. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. The designs that were emulated by Egyptian artists are numerous: the Uruk "priest-king" with his tunic and brimmed hat in the posture of the Master of animals, the serpopards , winged griffins, snakes around rosettes, boats with high prows, all characteristic of Mesopotamian art of the Late Uruk (Uruk IV, c. 3350–3200 BCE) period. [30], The route of this trade is difficult to determine, but contact with Canaan does not predate the early dynastic, so it is usually assumed to have been by sea trade. [62], There is also a possibility that the depictions of the Mesopotamian king with a muscular, naked, upper body fighting his enemies in a quadrangular posture, as seen in the Stele of Naram-Sin or statues of Gudea (all circa 2000 BCE) were derived from Egyptian sculpture, which by that time had already been through its Golden Age during the Old Kingdom. Both civilizations were patriarchal, but Egypt was a lot less strict towards women than Mesopotamia. Body Paragraph #2 – Social Similarities and Differences * Topic Sentence: Socially, even though both civilizations were patriarchal, the Egyptians were less strict than the Mesopotamians towards their female population. Religion Differences -Egyptians worshiped their pharoaohs as gods -Mesopotamians made figurines to pray for them while they did other things. Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. Carved ivory panel showing young bearded Egyptian men flanking lotus stem and flowers. ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFVan_de_Mieroop2011 (, "Before the pyramids: the origins of Egyptian civilization", "Earliest Cylinder-Seal Glyptic in Egypt: From Greater Mesopotamia to Naqada", "Earliest Egyptian Glyphs - Archaeology Magazine Archive", "DNA discovery unlocks secrets of ancient Egyptians", "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "The Aamu of Shu in the Tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hassan", Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Egypt–Mesopotamia_relations&oldid=988823508, 4th-century BC disestablishments in Egypt, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing Ancient Egyptian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 13:22. Carved ivory panel showing young Egyptian men flanking lotus stem and flowers. Outline of CC Rewrite I. Thesis Paragraph * Thesis: The political and social structures of Egypt and Mesopotamia both similarities and differences. [16], It is generally thought that cylinder seals were introduced from Mesopotamia to Egypt during the Naqada II period. Since social inequalities developed starting around the development of agriculture, women of ancient times were treated as inferior subjects. A lack of natural barriers and a constant competition for power led to continuous warfare also contributed to Mesopotamia’s lack of unity. In Mesopotamia, the government was a bureaucracy divided into city-states. [13] This type of pottery was manufactured in Egypt, with Egyptian clay, but its shape, particularly the spout, is Mesopotamian in origin. Ashmolean. This page intentionally left blank Unlike in ancient Egypt, the divine status of the Mesopotamian rulers was more of an exception than the rule. However, in Mesopotamia, the males subjugated the women. Globally during this time period, civilizations tended to vary from centralized to decentralized governments, with different opinions when it came to the female population. your own paper. The similarities and differences of the geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia are the root of the similarities and differences of their culture. These dates challenge the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia.