The Great Mosque of Samarra is located in Samarra city, in Iraq, about 120 km north of Baghdad, on the banks of river Tigris. No fatalities were reported. In a list of his building projects which appears in several different versions, the new Congregational Mosque and up t… Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Explosion Topples Minarets At Iraqi Shi'ite Shrine", "Several Mosques Attacked, but Iraq Is Mostly Calm - New York Times", "Iraqi police say famous shrine attacked", "Iraq dislodges insurgents from city of Samarra with airstrikes", Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions, 1906–1945, Iraq Image - Samarra Satellite Observation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Samarra&oldid=972525693#History, Articles needing additional references from May 2009, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 August 2020, at 14:42. The first mosque in Samarra was built in 836, but it was replaced between 848 and 852 by the Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil. The story "The Appointment in Samarra" subsequently formed the germ of a novel of the same name by John O'Hara. Ancient place names for Samarra noted by the Samarra Archaeological Survey are Greek Souma (Ptolemy V.19, Zosimus III, 30), Latin Sumere, a fort mentioned during the retreat of the army of Julian in 363 AD (Ammianus Marcellinus XXV, 6, 4), and Syriac Sumra (Hoffmann, Auszüge, 188; Michael the Syrian, III, 88), described as a village. Location : Samarra, Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate, 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Baghdad. At the time of its construction, it was one of the largest in the world. Claims have been made that the Great Mosque of Samarra could be compared to the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus as glass mosaics were pervasive throughout the site. The possibility of a larger population was offered by the opening of the Qatul al-Kisrawi, the northern extension of the Nahrawan Canal which drew water from the Tigris in the region of Samarra, attributed by Yaqut al-Hamawi (Muʿjam, see under "Qatul") to Khosrau I (531–578). A city of Sur-marrati (refounded by Sennacherib in 690 BC according to a stele in the Walters Art Museum) is insecurely identified with a fortified Assyrian site of Assyrian at al-Huwaysh on the Tigris opposite modern Samarra. Most rain falls in the winter. The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide with a spiral ramp. Materials : baked bricks, clay, walls were panelled with mosaics of dark blue glass. [8] He stated that he believed no Sunni Arab could have been behind the attack, though according to the New York Times the attackers were likely Sunnis linked to Al-Qaeda. On June 13, 2007, insurgents attacked the mosque again and destroyed the two minarets that flanked the dome's ruins. During the 20th century, Samarra gained new importance when a permanent lake, Lake Tharthar, was created through the construction of the Samarra Barrage, which was built in order to prevent the frequent flooding of Baghdad. The swastika in the center of the design is a reconstruction.[4]. The Samarra bowl at the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Samarra was once in the "Sunni Triangle" of violence during the sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–07). Though Samarra is famous for its Shi'i holy sites, including the tombs of several Shi'i Imams, the town was traditionally and until very recently, dominated by Sunni Arabs. "The Appointment in Samarra" (as retold by W. Somerset Maugham [1933]). The Nestorian patriarch Sargis (860–72) moved the patriarchal seat of the Church of the East from Baghdad to Samarra, and one or two of his immediate successors may also have sat in Samarra so as to be close to the seat of power.[6]. Furthermore, from the study of the Great Mosque of Samarra also proved how the decoration spared to the other parts in the world. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. This has made it an important pilgrimage centre for the Imami Shias. The city was further developed under Caliph al-Mutawakkil, who sponsored the construction of lavish palace complexes, such as al-Mutawakkiliyya, and the Great Mosque of Samarra with its famous spiral minaret or Malwiya, built in 847. Freed, "Research Pitfalls as a Result of the Restoration of Museum Specimens". Since 1946, the notebooks, letters, unpublished excavation reports and photographs have been in the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Stanley A. However, violence has continued, with bombings taking place in 2011 and 2013. The city declined but maintained a mint until the early 10th century. The snail shell minaret covered 42 acres as its peak and 108 feet wide with a … [7] On July 12, 2007, the clock tower was blown up. The Mosque of Abu Dulaf became the new congregational mosque, serving the Great Mosque in Samarra during this brief two-year period. The materials used in the great mosque of Samarra mixed sun-dried brick and baked brick, and the roof was made by wood. In addition to mosaic tesserae, finds included shaped inlay pieces made of clear mold-blown glass (23.75.2a–d) that appear to have been combined with mother-of-pearl pieces to form wall ornaments. To celebrate the completion of this project, a commemorative tower (modern Burj al-Qa'im) was built at the southern inlet south of Samarra, and a palace with a "paradise" or walled hunting park was constructed at the northern inlet (modern Nahr ar-Rasasi) near ad-Dawr. The reign of al-Mutawakkil had a great effect on the appearance of the city, for he seemed to have been a lover of architecture, and the one responsible for building the great Mosque of Samarra. Although quite often called Mamluk slave soldiers, their status was quite elevated; some of their commanders bore Sogdian titles of nobility.[5]. During the long decline of the Abbasid empire, Samarra was largely abandoned starting in AD 940. An indefinite curfew was placed on the city by the Iraqi police. ISIL forces captured the municipality building and university, but were later repulsed.[12]. In the mihrab used marble and gold. Samarra remained the residence of the caliph until 892, when al-Mu'tadid eventually returned to Baghdad. [14] The story is told in "The Six Thatchers", a 2017 episode of Sherlock. For the village in Iran, see. Material excavated from Abbasid Samarra suggests that several different varieties of glass ornament featured in the decoration of its palaces. A supplementary canal, the Qatul Abi al-Jund, excavated by the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid, was commemorated by a planned city laid out in the form of a regular octagon (modern Husn al-Qadisiyya), called al-Mubarak and abandoned unfinished in 796.