I, Ashurbanipal, learned the wisdom of Nabu [the god of writing], laid hold of scribal practices of all the experts, as many as there are, I examined their instructions. As for the people who hatched these plans for Shamash-shum-ukin, my hostile brother, and did the evil, but who were afraid of death and valued their lives highly, they did not cast themselves into the fire with Shamash-shum-ukin, their lord. He was an able soldier and administrator, a scholar, and a patron of art and learning. In Dananu's stead, Ashurbanipal appointed a noble called Rimutu as the new Gambulian chieftain after he had agreed to pay a considerable sum in tribute to the Assyrian king. Countries which had never previously had contact with the Assyrians, such as a kingdom ruled by a king called Ḫudimiri which "extended beyond Elam", also began paying tribute to the Assyrians for the first time.[37]. This is considered unlikely for several reasons. Oil on canvas, 1827. Ashurbanipal died in 631 BC after ruling the empire for 38 years… Ashurbanipal's Library gives modern historians information regarding people of the ancient Near East.In his Outline of History, H. G. Wells calls the library "the most precious source of historical material in the world.". [41] The beginning of Ashurbanipal's inscriptions regarding Shamash-shum-ukin read as follows: In these days Shamash-shum-ukin, the faithless brother of mine, whom I had treated well and had set up as king of Babylon, – every imaginable thing that kingship calls for, I made and gave him; soldiers, horses, chariots, I equipped and put into his hands; cities, fields, plantations, together with the people who live therein, I gave him in larger numbers than my father had ordered. They include the text of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Hearing of this, Ashurbanipal again marched his army to Egypt and defeated Tantamani. Since Ashubanipal was the next oldest son, he then was the superior candidate to the throne. Only vassal kings part of the Sargonid dynasty shown; for non-dynastic vassal kings and rebels during the Sargonid period, see, Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, I am Ashurbanipal king of the world, king of Assyria, "Kabale und Liebe: Die königliche Familie am Hof zu Ninive", "The Arab Campaigns of Aššurbanipal: Scribal Reconstruction of the Past", "Chronology and History in the Late Assyrian Empire (631–619 B.C. Having endured starvation and disease over the course of the siege, Babylon finally fell in 648 BC and was plundered by Ashurbanipal. After this, Ashurbanipal cursed Gyges and when Lydia was overrun by its enemies c. 652–650 BC there was much rejoicing in Assyria. Shapibel, the stronghold of Gambulu, I captured. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. These dated their documents by the years of the Assyrian king’s reign. [4] The library was assembled at Ashurbanipal's command, with scribes being sent out throughout his empire to collect and copy texts of every type and genre from the libraries of the temples. They smashed antiquities in the Mosul Museum and set about demolishing Nineveh itself. According to Ashurbanipal's account, his army, together with the army King Kamas-halta of Moab, defeated the rebel forces. Lions, portrayed with great observational accuracy, are shown being shot at close range with arrows or speared in the neck, their bodies carried aloft by servants. [9], Because Esarhaddon was constantly ill, much of the administrative duties of the empire fell upon Ashurbanipal and Shamash-shum-ukin during the last few years of their father's reign. I entered that city; its inhabitants I slaughtered like lambs. The Babylonians, who had been loyal to Assyria and faithful vassals of mine, he deceived, speaking lies to them. The next few years saw Ashurbanipal occupied elsewhere, leading his army in Anatolia against Tabal, in the north against Urartu and in the south-east against Elam. Outwardly, with his lips, he was speaking fair words while inwardly his heart was designing murder. Ashurbanipal installed a puppet king, Kandalanu, in Babylon and subdued the Arabs. The aging monarch seems to have withdrawn to Harran, leaving one son, Ashur-etil-ilāni, in control of Assyria proper and another, Sin-shum-lishir, to oppose the new Chaldean dynasty led by Nabopolasar in 626 b.c. Visitors entered the palace through massive gateways flanked by colossal human-headed winged bulls (known as lamassu) that protected the king from dangerous supernatural forces. One was hunting. [79], Ashurbanipal has sometimes been characterized as a zealot. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Crushing enemies was not confined to external threats – he also destroyed his own brother. Ashurbanipal was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The chronology of these campaigns is uncertain and based on the series of annals Ashurbanipal wrote, although the narrative appears to have been slightly altered over the course of a few years. Just as Hannah Arendt argued that the Holocaust was perpetrated by characterless paper-pushers, not flamboyant sadists, so we find here that Assyrian atrocities – including the forced resettlement of thousands of Israelites – were not the product of random mayhem but diligent organisation.