Finally in cameras, when not in use the image sensors uses about 161.9 mW and when activated it uses about 163.5 mW. On the other hand, just like everything else that uses electricity, using the image sensor in the camera is going to release nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases into the air due to electricity generation through fossil fuel. Distillation removes impurities, and those impurities become waste products. Since there may be numerous variations in the materials and methods used to construct image sensors, the following life-cycle steps are only examples. Due to the life-cycle of image sensors simply ceasing in this manner, the whole process of mining, manufacturing, transportation, use, and disposal must begin again with new primary raw materials. Ultimately, the process of creating what has become an essential product in our lives takes a never ending process of chemical and thermal energy to purify and break down crystals and elements along with mechanical and electrical energy to create the wafers that are the basis for every image sensor made. The mining procedures needed must be similarly material and energy-intensive compared to silicon mining. After that, the oxide is reduced with hydrogen to form germanium metal powder (Ruiz). “THE FUTURE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE RECYCLING IN THE UNITED STATES: Obstacles and Domestic Solutions .” THE FUTURE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE RECYCLING IN THE UNITED STATES: Obstacles and Domestic Solutions , July 2013, www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Namias_Thesis_07-08-13.pdf.

These mining operations often have a harmful effect on the environment, usually requiring the site to be cleared of flora and fauna. “Wafer Fabrication: Production of Raw Silicon.” Halbleiter.org, www.halbleiter.org/en/waferfabrication/rawsilicon/. When looking at the impact of image sensors, the energy and materials used by consumers are only a small fraction of the total embodied energy of this product. However, pure silicon cannot found naturally in nature, so people use quartz as the primary source to get silicon (Hughes). The number of sensors per wafer varies depending on the sensor die size, and potential defects in the wafer will reduce the total yield (“Understanding”). The output of germanium tetrachloride is distilled and hydrolyzed to form germanium dioxide. Building an image sensor, which is a transistor, requires high precision and purification process in each stage of the manufacturing process. Since silicon and germanium are from sources all over the world, oversea transportations are necessary. Since image sensors are in such high demand there seems to be no end in their development, which calls for smarter recycling and waste methods for said products. Since global warming still a big concern, people are trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. : Basics, Working Principle & Applications.” Electronics For You, 9 Oct. 2019, https://electronicsforu.com/resources/learn-electronics/mosfet-basics-working-applications. We use your information collected from the website to personalise your repeat visits to our website. Image sensors are consistently being used in almost every technological product from automobiles to phones and cameras. For digital cameras, image sensors react to visible light to produce image data. 6591–6601, doi:10.1039/C6AY01575A. “The Ultra-Pure, Super-Secret Sand That Makes Your Phone Possible.” Wired, Conde Nast, 30 Oct. 2018, https://www.wired.com/story/book-excerpt-science-of-ultra-pure-silicon/. https://policies.google.com/technologies/types, Used by Twitter and LinkedIn for routing, identifcation and preferences. In order to obtain the quartz, manufacturers must follow a process called quarrying. “Semiconductor Manufacturing and Fabrication Review.” Engineers Edge, www.engineersedge.com/manufacturing/semiconductor_fabrication.htm. The wafer is then sent through lapping, which is a buffing process that … Finally, as the silicon wafers are being finished, the room they are made in must be cleared of all possible dust that can affect the wafer (Delair). “The Quick and the Dirty: Ephemeral Systems in Silicon Valley.” Thresholds, no. Then, zone-refined germanium is further be grown into crystals, which are sliced into thin pieces for use optical lenses (Bell). People can react silicon or germanium scrap with Magnesium scrap to created Magnesium germanide/silicide. However, many of them still end up in waste; for those, there are new ways found in recent years to make them recyclable. ICAO. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43876268. Designers of imaging systems often have very specific requirements – for example, a specific size, pixel spacing, sensitivity or frame rate – which cannot be provided by the limited selection of CMOS image sensors on the market. Overall, these germanium sources usually have an average concentration of several hundred ppm or less (Bernstein 2409). “Recent Approaches for Optical Smartphone Sensing in Resource-Limited Settings: a Brief Review.” Analytical Methods, no. Therefore, in order to purify the air of dust, silicon manufacturers use approximately 144,000,000 BTU of energy (Discovery Science). The energy used to extract raw material such as silicon, to process it and ultimately prepare it for use in image sensors, along with out essentials, is a step by step process that embodies all types of energy from thermal to mechanical, chemical and electrical. The fundamental building blocks of this type of sensor are metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors and junction photodiodes (Guidash, et al.) The manufacture of cameras is highly varied, with the details in construction and layout dependent on intended use and aesthetic considerations (“Understanding”). To fill this gap, ISDI provides a complete service for the design and production of custom image sensors. A similar process occurs when creating the light transparent glass used to protect silicon wafer. There are various other sources of silicon, such as silica, but they must all be ultra-pure to be used in electronics (“Silica”). An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. There is also a difficulty in tracing the status of reused recycled products of this scale. Teledyne e2v’s unique approach involves listening to the market/application challenges of customers and partnering with them to provide an innovative solution which brings real value to their systems.