endobj stream H��W[s�~ׯ�Kg�Ԣq�Ǹ�n3��N�3y�恖�b�����U��� ^D�N���8��������,��_���K&���B��{#�B2�s��{�{���-n��� ���۫�f�_�x�9���B�\8Ȼ���)���_˕�eƞ�����ۯ_����x*����y�o*������,�V"W��;>!����-�Y�e�Y��p�������d Figure 1: The mechanism for the formation of a nitronium ion. ����.�� Q6�-A�J�%�[>nb-{8Q�s�>�~V�- �P+�7wB���T-@s�RV��j��׎Q�)~a���s��|������.��ܽ��<9�G���ja�_����KcF�]��gR;� ���H]`1�6�s~�-�Vvn6+9Ha��jt� D�G@h�DtL�r��7�����c�X�Mc�rXG�x�O��?�u�ш6�r�v����?7&���E͙3Ƚ"�1�U1H�������?+�S����F�C:ZL_�X,�+�ȡ�p)d%�� Consider the nitration of benzene versus the nitration of trifluoromethylbenzene and toluene (methylbenzene). 1003 Nitration of benzaldehyde to 3-nitrobenzaldehyde Classification Reaction types and substance classes electrophilic substitution of aromatics, nitration of aromatics aromatics, nitroaromatics, aldehyde Work methods stirring with magnetic stir bar, extracting, shaking out, recrystallizing, filtering, use of … 1. 7 0 obj 0000002500 00000 n endobj HU{k��ɓPk�߆�oC�7��m5��Vה�tوZ�/V�d��B�=�����@6{�5 ]�$3\�E��ŸB�X��Z�ہҏ~�� (Cm�6�t;L�ɫ�Y+}�+dH��N�W6��H�(߭X��%�� ;N����@�T7��3�A�T۠���D�_���mXP>h��U�,� endobj Friedel-Crafts Alkylation R = alkyl; X = Cl,Br, Catalyst = AlCl 3, etc. %%EOF 1 0 obj endobj %PDF-1.4 %���� 4 0 obj <> <> 0000002027 00000 n endobj 0000006236 00000 n 8 0 obj startxref endobj :� ��sCBpoZ��%6���������\��W����(1꯱��3�>�{j�B3�'�cꖩY'9�$)].�q�>�+ϱwl�+���!�57�]mF��9x� @��9,aFֻh�mA� �z:W;���܎�*5u��ù}��\�OE���Ƒ�G���5@w�9Y=| ��8��Q��24���su87�C��n6g���>�g�T�b��N�%��>i�4��zې���Tƌ�[�Ȑ7�9�r���՝�͖Б��֏e[��ÉmN/���&@�:��W� ���J�L��r��x8T���7�BL\b��+�ͺ���n���A�sM]lj����]$���_�#�M�бJ����좶Rq�#�C=QG#�,�6�]���ؓJ��C�}+ a6o�_ ����Z2=���P#�CRB���0/6h+ %PDF-1.5 0 0000000676 00000 n [ 11 0 R] x��W��1�G�p���S �!6C� ��)��q{|ì�%�����nw��\���$Y�g]^��HQ|� �x�.�������FZ��m]�H��0J:��u]>�ˇ� ��+e��2���L���){+���%��Z��A%�?�3���q(��u��b��72�r$� (�v��{"} �=� �~_9����zf��#�(P�Ȗ�ts�|��YKN��'^"/��E�^:� =qc�_�y�re1�f�^d#^��V�~��iYǼ�鐝�O�.���Vw�?���`��q0Q�w������ 4)[Џ���n�s�:������L3H������JV4dh���s ns�oѦ�I��n4 Nitration of benzene mechanism. 0000001301 00000 n %���� Generation of electrophile. 0000001172 00000 n 6 0 obj ]�,�\���w��oik #���_�,~�ϟX2������� �? endstream endobj 87 0 obj<> endobj 89 0 obj[90 0 R] endobj 90 0 obj<>>> endobj 91 0 obj<> endobj 92 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 93 0 obj<> endobj 94 0 obj<> endobj 95 0 obj[/ICCBased 104 0 R] endobj 96 0 obj<> endobj 97 0 obj<> endobj 98 0 obj<> endobj 99 0 obj<>stream endobj <<37bb534c43bd8a4aaf87a275c05355b0>]>> 0000007095 00000 n The electrophilic substitution reaction of benzene is done with the help of three steps. 4. ��5Z|��$�u���=M���h�Qȟf�h}�̻�/�m]$I6Iw� B׬��a�a��h�\��+�ؑ��ۑ�,C��QF���*�S�bt�C?M�|��N�? <> As the NO 2 + ion approaches the delocalised electrons in the benzene, those electrons are strongly attracted towards the positive charge.. Two electrons from the delocalised system are used to form a new bond with the NO 2 + ion. x��X�o�FG����>�e���"�@�*��)U����BH�J0u��r}g�6���B�ò�����o>vt����epy�׃�� �n�8p�9R�"��h������-KnW�Ft�����݂�/�� Q�Y�d�AB�nu/ �{��@�b��O�����v�&�&��6��v��V~���v�|��_�qLI�,�s(!�l����d)�9�f4%���9ڎ�?����P� ��w=.���8�ϰ#�ۣ_!���Tϸ �W���x ����+�c������0�!���Z��͹� Reaction type: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution. endobj The mechanism is the same regardless of the electrophile. The mechanism for nitration of benzene is in three steps. <> '� ���-9B�Ew���c���W��o9����?Nƨq�#MS�f8�y�6��7�cf����`䠟���Yq�K�>�o�L��J�!���F��X*8H��%�3��6�\7ov�ȲsRǔ�2�Ҭ�@�|B��`���h�Q�L��XA���E�\����c�TΤ�������5C쮆(Լ!C�T��+��p�^�W�N��t=����'���,.M�w��!q(|��1� 0000002465 00000 n The electrophilic substitution mechanism. ��o:~#Q�~&�쇢1�x�I�j�X�1���M�&�c��V�Վg�(�/��Q*��i��aLT���:��(S҅ܲ-Em�L��DuِGlM`CV��|. 0000002739 00000 n It 13 0 obj Stage one. endobj <> The methyl group of toluene makes it around 25 times more reactive than benzene in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.