All she need claim is that insofar as the bodily platform matters, it matters in virtue of the suite of abstract opportunities (encodings, operations) that it makes available9, and in contrast to the suite of encodings and operations that it makes unnecessary. Reductive MI is rejected by some because it is supposed to depend on an implausible semantic thesis: that we can define all our social terms—like ‘class,’ ‘class conflict,’ ‘nation’—in individualistic terms (see, e.g., Mandelbaum 1955, reprinted in O'Neill 1973). We may think of France as similarly constituted by an overlapping sequence of individual people, suitably related. That target was the thesis of multiple realizability: a staple of non-reductionist Philosophy of Mind ever since the heady days of early Machine Functionalism. Here, too, we acknowledge that our decisions reflect some arbitrariness, and that other scholars would create overlapping but different lists. Such approaches recognize the profound contributions that embodiment and environmental embedding make to the solution of the problem, and display those contributions clearly and distinctly. A comparable reduction of social entities to individuals aims to show that social entities like collectives are nothing over and above collections of suitably related individuals. They do this by identifying the information processing role of specific (both gross-bodily and neural) operations in our performance of the task. History of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. And if two entities do not share all their properties, they cannot be identical. Since its fundamental postulates turned out to be inapplicable to ordinary language, Wittgenstein made a fresh start, in his Philosophical Investigations, by grounding linguistic meaning in a sign's role in social interaction. But like the autonomous persons standing in societal relations they enjoy personal responsibility. If that were indeed the case then, for humanbeings like us, the body might thus provide for a kind of cognitive functionality that neural unfoldings alone do not typically support. This argument is open to dispute if we think of terms like ‘France’ as referring to whatever thing occupies a certain role, just as ‘The Prime Minister’ refers to the person, whoever it is, who occupies a certain party-political role. It consists of 2,800 entries, and is divided into eight parts, each of which is further divided by topic and subtopic. We decided that some sections of the encyclopedia should be organized around disciplines (though we stopped short of identifying a definitive list), but there should be a supplementary list of sections as well. Later, we decided to add two more sections to make the encyclopedia more timely and complete: Modern Cultural Concerns, intended to cover topics of contemporary preoccupation and debate—for example, affirmative action, transnationality, and multiculturalism; on some of these we envisioned two separate entries, one pro and one con; we believed such a section would capture some of the major concerns of civilization at the end of the second millennium. Content provider: Marxist Internet Archive. We chose the term “overarching topics” to describe these subjects and identified four headings: Institutions and Infrastructure of the Social and Behavioral Sciences: universities, research academies, government structures, funding agencies, databases, etc. We are unashamed of this expansion, acknowledging as it does the additional input provided by our extensive consultations as well as the accumulation, spread, and increased diversification of knowledge in the past 35 years. It is instead intrinsically dynamic, a vehicle for the construction of objects over which inference is definable. In his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, he devised a theory of logical truth based on a naturalistic metaphysics and a referential and speaker-oriented theory of the meaning of declarative sentences. The objection is that the relations in which individuals have to stand in order for collections of them to fill macrosocial roles are in fact social relations. 1). Our ultimate justification was that our judgments were not unreasonable and that what mattered most was to guarantee coverage of all the relevant areas. What role would something occupy in order to be France? URL:, Content provider: Arts and Humanities Research Council. An influential model for this sort of approach is microphysical reduction in the sciences; we reduce water to H2O by showing that the properties of a body of water are just the properties of a collection of suitably related H2O molecules (relations are important because the molecules have to have the right kinds of bonds, for example). However, other fields, such as Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, have a strong affiliation with the discipline of psychology as well. Reductionism is a claim about what exists, and not a claim about definability. In philosophy of mind, it yields two significantly different versions of the identity theory: one identifies types of mental events with types of physical events (suggesting that the best way to understand mental activity is through neurology); the other merely says that every mental event is some physical event or other (but not necessarily a biological physical event, leaving the door open to an understanding of … That target was the thesis of multiple realizability: a staple of non-reductionist, Methodological Individualism:Philosophical Aspects, ). The other perspective is one in which a natural language is characterised as a set of mechanisms for proposition construction. For as we saw, even the standard machine functionalist need not (and should not) deny that properties of the bodily “platform” matter to mind and cognition. Two sections are devoted exclusively to the articles and books of Alvin Plantinga and William Alston, major figures within the reformed epistemology movement. Resources are divided across four sections: theory of ontology; history of ontology; ontological topics in the history of philosophy; and pages on ontology in a language other than English. Description: This research guide contains links to more than 1,100 online epistemology papers. H. Schnädelbach, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) was a leading figure in twentieth-century philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. So all we have is a reduction of the social to the social. 2.1 and Sect. These 37 categories—representing overarching issues, methods, disciplines, intersecting fields, and applications—constitute our best effort to maximize coverage and to provide a basis for selecting section editors. Content provider: Kate Lindemann, Mount St. Mary College. Ana Dubnjakovic, Patrick Tomlin, in A Practical Guide to Electronic Resources in the Humanities, 2010, Content provider: David Chalmers, Australian National University. The table also gives the approximate number of entries allocated to each section—approximate because many entries had multiple allocations. These are the eight: Archaeology, most frequently considered a part of anthropology, but having an independent, coherent status, Demography, most frequently organized as part of sociology, economics, and anthropology departments, but also possessing a kind of disciplinary integrity, Education, a great deal of which involves social and behavioral scientific study, Geography, research in a major part of which is of a social-science character, History, sometimes classified in the humanities but as often in the social sciences, and clearly contributing centrally to knowledge in the social and behavioral sciences, Law, whose subject-matter overlaps significantly with that of several of the social and behavioral sciences, with important though different linkages in Europe and North America, Linguistics, spanning both the humanities and the social and behavioral sciences, but maintaining close links with the latter in cognitive science, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and anthropology. Ruben, a contributor to the second wave, argues that France cannot be so reduced, because no class or group of individuals can have exactly the properties France has. This article reviews some of the main ideas in cognitive science and its impact on these issues in the philosophy of mind. (1997, p. 732). It consists of 2,800 entries, and is divided into eight parts, each of which is further divided by topic and subtopic. Concise and clear, the website provides ample fodder for exploring the history, main tenets and principal figures of the movement, and appears to be growing with new entries on a regular basis.