(1984) increased mean culture fecundity by 30% within three generations with subculture selection. 2. • Cowpea Curculio in Alabama: Lessons from the Field Part 1: video, and PowerPoint presentation. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The immature (larva) is a grayish-white, legless, c-shaped grub with a small brown head, and is 1/3" long when fully grown. For an organic approach to Strategy 4, consult the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI™) for appropriate pyrethrin products. This insect overwinters in the adult stage and begins emerging in April or May depending on the availability of suitable host plants. The plum curculio (Fig. Various workers have recommended planned mixing in a culture to reduce inbreeding depression. In spring, adults become active and feed upon a developing fruit. They have four characteristic humps on their wing covers. It provides preliminary information about integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. A female curculio uses a number of hosts to lay her eggs in, including plums, peaches, apples, pears, and other pome and stone fruits. Directed selection can, however, have the shortcoming of inadvertently selecting for an inferior level of one trait while selecting for the targeted trait (Gaugler, 1987). Females lay eggs within the fruit. Due to their feigning behavior, crop scouts must look at the bottom of the plant for true insect counts. Effective monitoring of adults was identified as a key factor for the successful management of plum curculio (Akotsen-Mensah et al., 2010). ... Life Cycle (50-55 Days) Eggs… (Approx. Without this curved slit, eggs are killed by pressure from the growth of the host fruit. 4. Caterpillars also feed directly on peas and leave small, round holes on developing pods. Untreated check plots did not receive any insecticide applications. Cooperative Extension System, Posted by: Ayanava Majumdar, Neil Kelly, and Larry Well. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) is an equal opportunity educator and employer. One hypothesis is that smaller plants (characteristic of arid biomes) generally are more likely to be ant-dispersed than are larger plants. It is also considered a serious pest of peaches in the eastern US (Akotsen-Mensah et al., 2010). Cooperative Extension System operates as the primary outreach organization isolates were orders of magnitude more virulent than the commercial isolate based on LC50 values. 3. Standard quality control tests such as size, fecundity, fertility, and longevity reveal the genetic vigor of laboratory cultures (Legner, 1988b). Diapause in the life cycle is a particularly aggravating production problem, and thus it is advantageous to obtain nondiapausing field strains. These holes protect the eggs as the fruit develops and expands. Heather and Corcoran (1985) used ripe whole fruit for rearing the Queensland fruit fly for the first couple of generations in the laboratory until the population increased and adaptation to a prepared diet began. These holes are clean-cut and free of frass or webbing. After completing four larval instars, larvae drop to the ground and develop a pupal cell. Adults are known to feed on cowpeas, snap beans, lima beans, and peas, along with weedy hosts such as evening primrose, moss verbena, wild bean, and sicklepod, among others. These holes protect the eggs as the fruit develops and expands. Insecticide product names are mentioned as examples only; producers should check insecticide labels and compare products. The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) is a true weevil native to the regions east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. Females make small holes in the skin of the fruit, into which they deposit an egg. Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1994) adapted the maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller), a noctuid, to laboratory culture by rearing larvae individually. Thus, transgenic approaches have been used to increase the virulence in NPVs, e.g., through the addition of scorpion toxin (Stewart et al., 1991; Harrison and Bonning, 2000) or insect hormones (Maeda, 1989; Chen et al., 2000). Godfrey and Yeargan (1987) demonstrated similar effects for root-rot fungus and clover-root curculio, Sitona hispidulus (F.). Richard et al. Genetic improvement is directed toward enhancement of single or various beneficial traits, e.g., virulence, reproductive capacity, or environmental tolerance. Add a synergist (at the high rate) with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to improve control. Different agents dominate these processes in different ecosystems (Moll and McKenzie, 1994). Applications of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, B. bassiana, or Metarhizium brunneum have been ineffective (Jenkins et al., 2006; Pereault et al., 2009). (2005) reported that invertebrate predation on black spruce, Picea mariana, seeds was highest in recently burned sites, compared to undisturbed sites. In Wyoming, a 1990 survey (Page et al., 1990) revealed that most of the irrigated alfalfa fields in the state are infected with VW. Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI™), Typical crescent-shaped or D-shaped damage on paradise apple (, Adult plum curculio (Coleoptera) feeding on plum (. Some examples of laboratory screening studies that selected entomopathogen strains or species that later proved successful in the field include S. riobrave and H. indica for control of the citrus weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Duncan and McCoy, 1996; Shapiro et al., 1999a; Shapiro and McCoy, 2000b), S. riobrave for control of C. nenuphar (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002b, 2004b; Pereault et al., 2009), hypocrealean fungi for suppression of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Poprawski et al., 1999), and M. anisopliae for control of A. ludens (Lezama-Gutiérrez et al., 2000). Organic growers can control this insect with multiple applications of a certain kaolin clay product. Stop! For example, Gaugler et al. The most important period to monitor is between bloom and about two weeks following petal fall. The two non-molecular approaches (selection and hybridization) have also been combined for the development of superior entomopathogenic nematode strains (Mukaka et al., 2010). These holes protect the eggs as the fruit develops and expands. This technique works best early in the day when the beetles are sluggish. Selection for improved virulence can be obtained by passing the pathogen through a susceptible host (Steinhaus, 1949; Daoust and Roberts, 1982). The larvae that … CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, Yield decreases may result from pathogen infection. Either genetic uniformity or genetic variability is the preferable condition. (1993) provided further experimental support for the value of maintaining a laboratory culture as a series of subcultures. Adults feign death when approached, making it challenging to scout. Most internally damaged fruit (through burrowing into the fruit) drops prematurely. Find out more about this exciting new development, Using our new visualization tools you can, Using our new highlighting and annotation tool you can, remove selected records that are not saved in My CABI, sign you out of your Adult emergence (first generation) can be sudden, with a rapid second generation that develops in a month. Trade and brand names used in this publication are given for information purposes only. Chemical Control - Usually two or three sprays are directed at the plum curculio. Curculios may first be seen on field edges, creating an edge effect. It is found most commonly in areas east of the Rocky Mountains and in eastern Canada. The Alabama Adults feed directly on various plant parts and cause the most damage to the pods using their chewing mouthparts. ALABAMA READY - Resources for Dealing with Hurricanes, Cowpea Curculio in Alabama: Lessons from the Field Part 1: video, Alabama Pest Report: Overall Moth Counts & Pest Activity, Temporary and Permanent Pest Exclusion Systems for Vegetable Production, Alabama