Although each of the three cartilage zones is composed of chondrocytes, the morphology and physiology of the chondrocytes vary greatly from layer to layer, thus creating a stratified tissue (Sharma and Elisseeff 2004; Sharma et al. This is the classic counterstain in both Gram stains and endospore staining. A random sample should be obtained that represents the population of interest. Safranin typically has the chemical structure shown at right (sometimes described as dimethyl safranin). Each selection is a choice of two possibilities (such as the presence or absence of a feature). ;r��Xb��%J��j'�S{4<9��Y+���q���X?Dp,�[��8�oo k�i�ۍ9��Ì���u���z�k�|{�4�eˉ8Q�Ի>��w>��9�+~=PUy��}/ɋ�0? For example, a wood that has vessels must be a hardwood, so all softwood species are eliminated. It had been suggested by other authors (Vachon et al., 1986) that this may be due to an inability of such a defect to repair itself which could be related to the high density of the subchondral bone and the high impact loading forces withstood by the repair tissue at this location (the author also feels that the relatively low cartilage thickness can be a factor as well). HA has been approved for use in human patients both as viscous fluid and sheet formulations, and is indicated for knee pain and surgical adhesions, respectively. true /ColorSpace 13 0 R /Intent /Perceptual /BitsPerComponent 8 /Filter /DCTDecode Exposing normal osteoblasts to IL-1β and then co-culturing them with OA chondrocytes also resulted in a decrease in aggrecan production and significant up-regulations of MMP-3 and MMP-13 mRNA levels, an effect not seen in unexposed normal osteoblasts. Hoadley (1990) references examples of species determination of wood using chemical stains, including box elder and other maples, red gum and black tupelo, elms, pond and sand pines, spruces and pines, and other groups. ;�3�f]��MF&�6����s;`���� +3��e��尧f����[Y$ќ�A[=�RA�G���-0�|O����D����S䞸s� A hole away from the edge is used if the feature is absent, and a notch (where the hole is enlarged to include the edge) is used if the feature is present. It is possible to conclude that the cartilaginous layer of the composite scaffold is permissive to human articular chondrocyte differentiation and cartilaginous matrix deposition, whereas only a fibrous tissue could develop in the subchondral bone layer. Alternately 2 g of sodium chlorite with 12 drops of acetic acid can be used for 3 h at 85 °C in a hood. However there is considerable deficiency in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of the repair tissue (hexosamine level of 20.6 ± 1.85 mg/g dry weight) (DW) compared with normal articular cartilage (41.8 ± 4.3 mg/kg dry weight) (Howard et al., 1994). Iodine is used to detect the presence of starch, which might be present in sapwood but not in heartwood or paper such as in the detection of forged currency. V. Varone, ... G. Troncone, in Comprehensive Sampling and Sample Preparation, 2012. 2001). Several stains are available to determine the level of bleaching (or cooking) of pulps, such as Bright stain. Separation of heartwood and sapwood is referenced (Kutscha and Sachs, 1962). For routine analysis of large numbers of wood samples in a mill, where often only a few species must be distinguished, freehand cutting with a very sharp knife or single-edged razor blade may be suitable. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> The Maule reaction can also be used. Histochemical staining for mucin by the mucicarmine method. ���� JFIF � � ���ICC_PROFILE �appl mntrRGB XYZ � A co-culture study of monocytes/macrophages with human articular chondrocytes was conducted to better understand the role that chondrocytes play during inflammation, and the cells were cultured in serum-free media to exclude effects of exogenous soluble factors and mediators (Dreier et al. Many large patient trials have confirmed the effectiveness of HA for these applications (Beck et al., 2003; Diamond, 1996; Kemper et al., 2005; Waddell and Bricker, 2006a, 2006b). >> 55(7): 127–129(1954)] has reviewed maceration techniques. 2008). Recent studies in regenerative medicine are focusing on the transitional interfaces between tissues to create continuous integrations of engineered tissues composed of different cell types (Phillips et al. However, the percentages of type II collagen improved considerably by 12 months (79.4% type II collagen at 12 months compared with no detectable type II collagen at 4 months) (Howard et al., 1994) and hyaline-like cartilage was present in the deeper layers at 12 months (Fig. 5 0 obj However, there is a high morbidity rate at donor sites, and significant scar formation. The authors noted that specimens examined at 17 at 28 weeks had a more cartilaginous-appearing replacement tissue with fewer synovial adhesions than those examined at 54 and 67 weeks after surgery and, based on this, suggested that a 12 month post-surgical rest from training did not appear to have any greater benefit than a 3–4 month rest. Fast Green — a progressive dye. Plate VI. (2005) observed that monolayer sclerotic subchondral osteoblasts isolated from osteoarthritic joints produced higher amounts of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. Temporary slides are made with Karo. Tappi T 263 suggests the use of 50:50 solution of glycerin and 95% ethanol with heating to the boiling point (after the cover glass is applied) to drive off air. In these studies, a 1 cm2 full-thickness defect were created using arthrotomy on the distal radial carpal bone. Wood is first cut into pieces about 2 mm square by 25 mm in the longitudinal direction. Figure 17. In particular, structural proteins such as collagen, laminin, elastin, and fibronectin have been used as naturally derived materials for tissue engineering and as vehicles for cell delivery. When co-cultured together in a bilayer, a much greater difference was observed between the two chondrocyte types. The most frequently used stains are the following: Mason’s Trichrome (stains collagen green or blue), Van Gieson (stains for elastin), Von Kossa (stains tissue calcification), Safranin-O (stains glycosaminoglycans red), PAS (stains glycogen, neutral mucins, basement membranes, many fungi and parasites red magenta), Congo Red (stains amyloid deposits red or apple green when viewed with polarized light), Prussian blue (stains iron intensely blue), Giemsa (highlights some microorganisms, e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Leishmania), Ziehl–Neelsen (stains acid–alcohol resistant bacteria bright red) (Figures 15–18). Complete removal of calcified cartilage in experimental defects in the carpus without excessive removal of subchondral bone is difficult (however, it can be done consistently in defects on the femoral condyles and femoral trochlear ridges). An alternate arrangement is to have the cross and radial sections on top and the tangential section beneath the radial section. Amyloid is selectively stained by the Red Congo histochemical method. Phenosafranine is not very stable in the free state; its chloride forms green plates. In vivo tests were performed on large animals (horses, n = 2); in the knee articulation, a defect type 4 was created and repaired with the osteochondral substitute. Fast green is used with safranin on many other botanical samples as a counterstain (for example, to show phloem tissue). In addition to experimental work, arthroscopic observations of the healing of clinical articular defects confirmed the failure of these defects to heal effectively on the carpal articular surfaces (McIlwraith and Vachon 1988; McIlwraith et al., 2005). Subchondral bone drilling of full-thickness cartilage defects was followed by fibrocartilagenous repair tissue of superior quality and quantity to the fibrous tissue of non-drilled defects but satisfactory functional healing was not achieved (Vachon et al., 1986). Both full-thickness and partial thickness defects in horses were used to evaluate the healing response in association with subchondral drilling (Vachon et al., 1986; Shamis et al., 1989). If calcified cartilage is not debrided it is presumed that the defect is not full-thickness and this clouds interpretation of the data.