24,978 homes, 24 churches, 2,320 stores, 775 warehouses and 62 schools were destroyed. [44] Despite the disaster, the city’s destruction was often regarded as the perfect opportunity to redress many of the problems of industrial pre-war Rotterdam, such as crowded, impoverished neighborhoods,[45] and to introduce broad-scale, modernising changes in the urban fabric which had previously been too radical in built-up city. Die schnelle Besetzung von Akyab machte das XV. After a brief moment of deliberation Scharroo made the decision to capitulate, which General Winkelman approved of by means of his direct representative, Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. Christiaanse, Kees (2012). [5], With a significant military advantage, the German leadership intended to expedite the conquest of the country by first taking control of key military and strategic targets, such as airfields, bridges, and roads, and then using these to gain control of the remainder of the country. [45] In later years, Rotterdam architect Kees Christiaanse wrote: Rotterdam did indeed resemble an American provincial city. [44] Despite the disaster, the city's destruction was regarded as the perfect opportunity to redress many of the problems of industrial pre-war Rotterdam, such as crowded, impoverished neighborhoods,[45] and to introduce broad-scale, modernising changes in the urban fabric which had previously been too radical in built-up city. In the meantime, Colonel Scharroo—by then totally isolated from The Hague since all communication lines had been destroyed—had to decide the fate of the defence of Rotterdam. In addition to that the air force must, while weakening the forces that up till now have supported the 6th Army, facilitate the rapid fall of the Fortress Holland. [49] The 'Basisplan' placed a high emphasis on broad open spaces and promoted the river's special integration with the city through two significant elements; the Maas Boulevard, which re-imagined the newly moved dike as an 80m wide tree-lined street; and the "Window to the River,’ a visual corridor running from the harbour to the centre of the city. The three men held the banner of truce, but were nevertheless treated harshly by the Dutch. Concerning the Dutch theatre of operations he says the following: The resistance capability of the Dutch army has proved to be stronger than expected. 1069–1091. [26], Student radioed to postpone the planned attack. The Dutch defences were hardly hit by the raid and basically stayed intact. An official German form designated red as the colour to be used for that purpose.[31]. Mission 973: As part of a relief effort flown by 396 B-17s to the Netherlands, 237 B-17s dropped food supplies into Rotterdam. Instead of precision bombers, Schmidt got carpet bombing by Heinkel He 111 bombers besides a Gruppe of Stukas focussing on some strategic targets.[20]. [37] German weekly Die Mühle (The Windmill) stated that the Dutch government was to blame for turning Rotterdam into a fortress, despite multiple summons to evacuate. It was relatively far from the boundaries of Fortress Holland and some distance from the coast. Fifty-four He 111s dropped low to release 97 tonnes (213,848 lb) of bombs, mainly in the centre of the city. [3] The industrial area between Keilehaven and Merwehaven was hit. No USAAF losses. [2] Eleven operational G.Is, fully armed and fueled, were stationed at Waalhaven on 10 May. It also claimed that the old city was ignited by Dutch bombs and incendiary devices. Areal view of the Coolsingel with the famous Bijenkorf department store – architect Willem Dudok – partly destroyed during the bombing and demolished in 1960, Schmidt used the threat of destruction of the city to attempt to force Colonel Scharroo to surrender the city. "Rotterdam". "Rotterdam Rises Again". The only resistance they met was from some Dutch policemen. Buy a life-sized Dinosaur: https://amzn.to/2YB2rjS* This channel is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.comPlease consider leaving a like and subscribing if you enjoyed the content. They were scheduled to land at the Feyenoord football stadium, close to the Nieuwe Maas. The Netherlands had firmly opted for neutrality throughout the First World War and had planned to do the same for the Second World War. After a few more marines fell, the remainder retreated. [29] Although the exact number of casualties is not known, nearly 1,000 people were killed and 85,000 were made homeless. "Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine Fallschirmjäger" (in German). This larger-scale, 'wholesale-quantity' approach was used equally for hospitals and parks (such as Dijkzigt Hospital and Zuider Park) as retail centres,[49] but close attention was still paid to creating human-scale, walkable promenades, especially that of the Lijnbaan, which presented broad sunny walkways for shoppers and spectators, and tried new retail techniques such as open glass walls to blend interior and exterior. [24][25] However, it was already too late and just as the Dutch negotiator was crossing the Willemsbrug to relay this information, the drone of bombers was heard: a total of 90 bombers from Kampfgeschwader 54 were sent over the city. [2], An attack on the city of Rotterdam on 31 March 1943, was made by 102 USAAF bombers. This was the first time I'd ever seen devastation by fires on this scale. The Dutch surrendered in the late afternoon of 14 May, signing the capitulation early the next morning. On the morning of 14 May, General Schmidt prepared a quick note in the form of an ultimatum, which was to be handed over to the Dutch commander of Rotterdam. Due to the extent of damage from the bombardment and resulting fire, an almost immediate decision was taken to demolish the entire city centre with the exception of the Laurenskerk, the Beurs (trade centre), the Postkantoor (Post Office) and the town hall. In the evening, the Germans reached Overschie, where a brief skirmish with a local Dutch outfit—unaware of the cease fire—cost one SS man his life.[2]. (1990). ISBN. For security reasons a huge white flag was waved to also arriving SS men. The German soldiers considered the fact that their famous General had been shot a yellow act of Dutch betrayal. There are many novels set in Rotterdam. [21][22][23], Schmidt postponed a second ultimatum to 16:20. [48], While urban reconstruction can be fraught with complexity and conflict,[46] Rotterdam’s status as a ‘working’ harbour city meant it did not receive the same resistance to rebuilding as a cultural or political centre (like Amsterdam or The Hague) may have. Although the Dutch did not regain control of the city, the Germans were suffering from continuous assaults on their positions. Uitgeverij Boom. Another company of navy auxiliary troops—also with a strength of about 100 men—was provided as back-up. The last bomber completed the mission about a minute later. [5], With a significant military advantage, the German leadership intended to expedite the conquest of the country by first taking control of key military and strategic targets, such as airfields, bridges and roads and then using these to take over control of the remainder of the country. [45] This was met with criticism from the newly formed ‘Inner Circle of Rotterdam Club’, who promoted integrating the city with the Maas River, and claimed the dike would create a marked separation from it. General Student—who had just opened the meeting, ran to the window and about the same time—was hit by a bullet in the head. On the Morning of 14 May, Hitler issued his "Weisung" Nr. It also claimed that the old city was ignited by Dutch bombs and incendiary devices. [45] Both were meant to show the workings of the harbour to the city's people. It was clear to the Dutch senior officers in Rotterdam that with the failed action against the bridges, all hope would have to be fixed on a successful defence of the northern river bank. Instead, the aircraft turned around over the North Sea and returned to attack from the west, dropping paratroopers at Valkenburg and Ockenburg airfields, near the Dutch seat of government and the Royal Palace in The Hague, starting the Battle for the Hague. "Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945". Battle for Rotterdam [edit | edit source] The situation in Rotterdam on the morning of 13 May 1940 was a stalemate as it had been over the previous three days. 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