It shows you’re not pretending that the information you’ve gathered is solely from your own mind, but you’re building on what others have said, observed, and experienced. When discussing the arguments of other thinkers, as we often have to do when writing a paper, you might find yourself writing “so and so says…” quite often.While this is good enough most of the time, you may also want to vary your word choice. “Says” is used with the present tense, and “said” is used with the past tense. You can also upload a document to get an instant quote. Periods and commas should be placed inside the quotation marks. Knowing who said it (Yogi Berra) is important, because it’s an original thought, and because knowing the speaker is one reason why it’s funny. ( Log Out /  Paraphrasing seems to draw on a wider range of terms but I haven’t done a proper analysis of that. Quotations are most appropriate when the author is particularly well-known, when you want to add an air of authority to the information, and when the exact words are particularly eloquent. Direct: She said "The postman is late again." It is easily the most commonly used form of attribution. We hope to see you as a part of our community soon! Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The citations, throughout, are a foundational element, showing the reader how your argument developed and why you think as you do about the subject. Was America really listening when President Kennedy said, “Ask what you can do for your country”? However, you may find that a quotation does not grammatically align with the way you want to use it, or that the relevance of the quotation may not be readily apparent to a reader. It's very rare I do this. TEHRAN, Iran (AP) — Iran’s supreme leader mocked America’s presidential election Tuesday in a televised address, quoting President Donald Trump’s own baseless claims about voter fraud to criticize the vote as Tehran marked the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis. As such, it wouldn’t make sense to say “Johnson argues that his favorite ice-cream is vanilla,” since this is an opinion, not an argument. When they check out the source (the Centers for Disease Control), however, they’ll likely be convinced and more willing to accept the premise you’re building on. Thanks! NEVER Coach Brown says Monday. (Research summary), How to embed a vertical video from YouTube or Vimeo, Here are the angles journalists use most often to tell the stories in data, Here's how we teach creativity in journalism (and why it's the 5th habit of successful journalists), 20 free ebooks on journalism (for your Xmas Kindle) {updated to 64}, Why journalists ditch the thesaurus when it comes to "said" (for new journalism students who don't), Journalism degree at Birmingham City University, MA Online Journalism at Birmingham City University, PGDip Broadcast Journalism at Birmingham City University. Both methods help you introduce another author’s work as a means of strategically improving the persuasiveness of your paper. “The weak can never forgive. when she SAYS. They are both direct speech, the first spoken in the present and the second spoken in the past. The sentence in question: Some of you say/said that you would finish this past weekend. However, it seems rather tricky, and I want to tell her correctly. Is it say or said? The author notes. Ah yes, that one is a bugbear of my colleague, Ross Hawkes. Use “added” if your quote runs into a subsequent line and you are breaking it up, Firstly, when it comes to quoting what someone has said, journalists are trained to be extra careful, Secondly, journalists are encouraged to ‘. But it’s so invisible you don’t notice. Rarely do these types of quotes need commas in front of them. Colons, semicolons, and dashes should be placed outside the quotation marks. Use an ellipsis (…) to indicate that there is more to the quote than you offer here. Reply to discussions and create your own threads. ( Log Out /  Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Your email address will not be published. Quoting and paraphrasing the ideas and knowledge others have set forth is a way to show your reader how you arrived at your conclusions. These tend to be used when quoting from social media updates: 3 of the 5 uses of “declared” and “called”, for example, come from the BuzzFeed article ‘Here’s How NFL Players Are Reacting To Trump’s “Son Of A Bitch” Comment‘ (also the only use of “wondered” or “asked“). It’s the start of a new term in journalism courses across the country, and journalism lecturers will once again be spending the first few weeks helping students to ‘unlearn’ a habit they acquire at school: the impulse to use multiple synonyms instead of the word “said”*. Number 5 is one you’ll want to quote directly, as the person who said it (Kevin Hackett, of the USDA) is a key person in the debate about honeybee colony collapse and what to do about it. It’s an example of telling rather than showing, when a factual detail can be more effective. [email protected]. Interlocking architectural components: Paraphrasing links your own thinking with the ideas and research of others, creating a strong and engaging argument. Generally, you will choose a quotation rather than paraphrasing when you want to add an air of authority to the information you’re presenting, when the words you’re using are offered by a source important to your particular topic, or when the exact words have historical relevance or are particularly eloquent. The author explicitly states: “Socrates was only a figment of Plato’s imagination.”, He brought listeners to tears when he ended his last broadcast with his familiar, “And that’s the way it is…”, This is the pivotal part of the story: “The doorman cried out, ‘You forgot your coat!’ as he ran after the cab.”, “In the middle of the novel,” the critic claims, “the main character’s reflections are restricted by his sense of impending change.”, When the team’s best player said, “We’re in for a bad season,” it became clear that the team’s morale wa. In the U.S., ideas are always attributed to the thinker or writer, as are any facts discovered through research. Is it appropriate to italicize words instead of put quotes around them in those examples using “in the vicinity” and “confidently”? I used "says" instead of "said" throughout the piece. Paraphrasing is using a particular idea that you took from another author and putting it in your own words. I suppose I am a little confused since it is still being read from documents. Think of that when you’re about to write, “They say that…,” or “Most people agree…” You’re not giving the reader any reason to believe you. I'm not sure why, but for some feature stories I like that. Quoting and paraphrasing the ideas and knowledge others have set forth is a way to show your reader how you arrived at your conclusions. While this is good enough most of the time, you may also want to vary your word choice. “[Fiestas] are the lifeblood of this region. [It is] often considered lazy writing by readers and critics who want dialogue to speak for itself without the use of fancy tags to carry its meaning and intention for it; in many cases, the dialogue tags effectively repeat what the dialogue is already telling us.“. When you find a statement summarizing evidence you plan to use or evidence you think you might use, save it. Discussion in 'Journalism topics only' started by Cullen9, Aug 8, 2011. Those other voices are there to support you and your argument. Create a free website or blog at (BBC), Fiona Macrae, from Travel Insurance Explained, advised customers to spend more on travel insurance so policies covered claims for cancellations ‘beyond reasonable control’. The Online Journalism Handbook 2nd Edition now available on Amazon, Ebook Scraping for Journalists available on Leanpub. It is not a conversation that is being relayed. If a quotation needs to be substantially changed, it may be better to simply paraphrase the author’s ideas in your own words. …The document says “It was just after midnight that she was admitted.”. It would be very difficult to follow, and your own voice would be drowned out by all the “experts.” Expository writing isn’t about giving us other people’s opinions—it’s about giving us your own.