[9] Carved figure with feathers. Scholars of comparative mythology have noticed many parallels between the stories of the ancient Sumerians and those recorded later in the early parts of the Hebrew Bible. Temples served as cultural, religious, and political headquarters until approximately 2500 BC, with the rise of military kings known as Lu-gals (“man” + “big”)[6] after which time the political and military leadership was often housed in separate "palace" complexes. The king-priest, wearing a net skirt and a hat with leaves or feathers, stands before the door of a temple, symbolized by two great maces. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin.jpg, Detail. . It is also one of the first civilizations in the world, along with Ancient Egypt, Norte Chico, Minoan civilization, Ancient China, Mesoamerica and the Indus Valley.

[16]:58 Nonetheless, there are assumptions according to which treasures in wealthy graves had been intended as offerings for Utu and the Anunnaki, so that the deceased would receive special favors in the underworld.

An was the ancient Sumerian god of the heavens. : Grave goods, the Mesopotamian afterlife, and the liminal role of Inana/Ištar", "Inanna/Ishtar as a Figure of Controversy", "Anunna (Anunnaku, Anunnaki) (a group of gods)", Sumerian Hymns from Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sumerian_religion&oldid=982604271, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 05:21. Toward the end of the Sumerian civilization, ziggurats became the preferred temple structure for Mesopotamian religious centers. In the early dynastic period, temples developed raised terraces and multiple rooms. [10] Underneath the terrestrial earth, which formed the base of the dome, existed an underworld and a freshwater ocean called the Abzu.
The Sumerians regarded their divinities as responsible for all matters pertaining to the natural and social orders.[3]:3–4. Iraq Museum.jpg, Head of a votive statue, from Adab, Iraq, early dynastic period. Ningal was the wife of Nanna,[34] as well as the mother of Utu, Inanna, and Ereshkigal. The Sumerian goddess Inanna also developed the counterpart Ishtar during the Old Babylonian Period.

[14] The middle dome of heaven was made of saggilmut stone and was the abode of the Igigi. [13]:179 The Akkadians syncretized their own gods with the Sumerian ones,[13]:179 causing Sumerian religion to take on a Semitic coloration. Sumerian language, their language; Sumerian art; Sumerian architecture; Sumerian literature; Cuneiform script, used in Sumerian writing; Sumerian Records, an American record label based in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles
Humans were believed to have been created by Enki, the son of Nammu and An. Iraq Museum.jpg, Detail, limestone foundation peg of Lugal-kisal-si, from Uruk, Iraq. [13]:180 Each dome was made of a different kind of precious stone. Sumerian male worshipper, from Iraq, precise provenance unknown (purchase or donation).

Early Dynastic Period, c. 2600 BCE. [19] During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried;[16]:58 those that had been given sumptuous burials would be treated well,[16]:58 but those who had been given poor burials would fare poorly, and were believed to haunt the living. Adapa Sumerian deity of healing, painting of a relief Wellcome M0005792.jpg 2,816 × … Sumerian religion. We created Smarthistory to provide students around the world with the highest-quality educational resources for art and cultural heritage—for free. Early Dynastic Period, c. 2600 BCE. [33] He may have also been the father of Inanna and Ereshkigal. The Sumerians envisioned the universe as a closed dome surrounded by a primordial saltwater sea. Pergamon Museum.jpg, Lioness, about 2100 BC, Sumerian, Iraq, copper alloy - Cleveland Museum of Art - DSC08173.JPG, Lower register, Warka Vase, from Uruk, c. 3000 BCE, Iraq Museum, Baghdad.jpg, Lower register, Warka Vase, from Uruk, c. 3000 BCE. Wellcome M0000447.jpg, Fragment of a Vessel from Khafajah, Iraq, showing a Sumerian mythical scene. Statuette. [32] Utu was principally regarded as a dispenser of justice;[13]:184 he was believed to protect the righteous and punish the wicked.

Sumerian female worshipper, from Iraq, precise provenance unknown (purchase or donation). Statuette.

In Sumerian … The main source of information about the Sumerian creation myth is the prologue to the epic poem Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld,[12]:30–33 which briefly describes the process of creation: originally, there was only Nammu, the primeval sea. [16]:108 The Sumerians had more myths about her than any other deity. He was the father of Utu and one of the patron deities of Ur.

Enlil was the god of air, wind, and storm. In the Sumerian city-states, temple complexes originally were small, elevated one-room structures. [16]:58, The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. Until the advent of the legal, Sumerian city-states were under a virtually theocratic government controlled by various En or Ensí, who served as the high priests of the cults of the city gods. The Sumerians believed that the universe had come into being through a series of cosmic births. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin.jpg, Egyptian statue of..., Old Kingdom (?) Iraq Museum.jpg, Sumerian Statues from Eshnunna and Khafajah of Diyala region, Iraq Museum.jpg, Sumerian Status from Tell Asmar, part of the Tell Asmar Hoard (cropped).jpg, Sumerian Status from Tell Asmar, part of the Tell Asmar Hoard.jpg, Sumerian votive wall plaque from Khafajah showing 4-legged animals, Iraq, c. 2600-2370 BCE.

[29]:xiii, xv[12]:101 Many of the myths involving her revolve around her attempts to usurp control of the other deities' domains.[31]. This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total. Mesopotamian art and architecture, the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. [15][14] The celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.jpg, Top register, Warka Vase, from Uruk, Iraq Museum.jpg, Top register, Warka Vase, Uruk, c. 3000 BCE, Iraq Museum.jpg, Top register, Warka Vase, Uruk. The Amorite Babylonians gained dominance over southern Mesopotamia by the mid-17th century BC.