If there is no reserved sign on it, then my wife and I are going to walk over there and sit down. It is hard to extend them meaningfully. Mainstream adoption starts to take off. We need a generate function which will take our dsDSL and yield a string with HTML. As a result, applications had only to deal with an abstract, meaningful and lasting representation of data, and interface it through a powerful, yet simple query language. I meant the above as a metaphor. For us, the right level of abstraction when talking about chatbots, AI and cognitive computing is declarative programming where you simply focus on the What. Let's take the Fizz-Buzz example. We want to overcome the separateness between the DSL and our programming language so that we are free to use the full power of a programming language whenever we need it. In this article, we will take a closer look at three problem examples and examine two different techniques (Imperative and Declarative) for solving each of these problems. For example, the Roslyn compiler had to ditch many of its declarative LINQ based iterations to manage object allocation, garbage collection, memory usage, and performance. One solution to this would be good commenting - an explanation of what each declarative statement does, in imperative form. The cognitive computing and AI definitely have the potential to change the way we develop software in the long-term. Maybe you are right about Prolog Haskell etc (that they are dead ends for programmers) but not for the same reasons. Opposed to this view are declarative programming languages. If declarative programming works well for you, I’m in no position to tell you otherwise. Other template systems suffer because they truly need to provide a non-trivial programming language so their users can actually write presentation logic. I will expound on this issue on a future article. This lack of unfoldance, if you forgive the neologism, is routinely justified by the necessity to shield the user from the lower level. We now turn to a second problem of declarative tools, which is widespread but not inherent. In fact, my old maths teacher was very fond of giving the class sequences just like your declarative example, and asking us to work out the imperative rules for the sequence, as a challenge exercise! Solve the same problems with your high level layer and verify that the solutions are indeed correct. For each product, show the fields: description, price and categories. These problems should be real. We now create a row with the table headers. In order to reap the benefits of declarative constructs in database applications, we have used Speedment Stream. Replace text within a template: variable substitution. The page shall be returned as an unmodifiable List of Person objects. Maybe, yes. The heuristic I suggest you to consider is, value tools that illuminate their problem domain, instead of tools that obscure their problem domain behind purported features. This is how the (immutable) Person class looks like: We have also defined another immutable class called YearCountry that shall be used as the grouping key: Having defined these two classes, we can now define this problem example by means of this interface: It is non-trivial to implement an imperative solution to the GroupingBy example problem. Java, C, JavaScript, PHP, Python… all these languages make it easy to build any software you like. Investments continue only if the surviving providers improve their products to the satisfaction of early adopters. There are 3 significant developments that we are introducing with Darvin.ai as the next-generation technology for building enterprise chatbots. Sql has been extended with analytic clauses, model clauses, procedural calls, inline functions… and some relational databses can now handle objects, xml, json. Every critique needs its bogeyman, so I will use HTML templating systems as a concrete example of the shortcomings of declarative programming. This is a dsDSL at its best. That is why we are building our own custom renderer on top of the Angular 4 base implementation to harness the power of Angular templating engine that you can use directly in your conversation declaration. Declarative languages like sql are not a dead end. Find the patterns of generation (low level). We will iterate printableFields and generate table headers for each of them: Notice that we have just implemented iteration, the workhorse of HTML generation, and we didn’t need any DSL constructs; we only needed a function to iterate a data structure and return dsDSLs. Now, what the hell are patterns of representation and patterns of generation? The idea is nothing new, as prolog from 1972 is a declarative language, but the idea of declarative programming is something I don’t think is talked about enough in the context of code quality. You tell the machine what data you want, and it works out how to retrieve that data in the best possible way.